Institute of Hydribiology, the NAS of Ukraine

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Fundamental Research

Under the Dnieper Biological Station to the events of 1917, its researchers have collected a variety of materials for different groups of aquatic organisms (plankton and bentos animals), conducted ornithological research work. During this period published two volumes of papers "Works of Dnieper Biological Station" (1914, 1915).

After the resumption of the station since 1919, gradually leading to the station are the subjects of research typology and regional peculiarities of the Dnieper and its flood waters, the laws of supply and growth of fish, the question of production and sanitary hydrobiology, hydrochemistry. Material piled on the hydrobiological and hydrochemical zoning of the Dnieper (Y. Roll, Y. Markov, V. Tovbin), then laid the basis for prediction of biological Dnieper reservoirs. The results of this period published in periodicals: "Proceedings of the Dnieper Biological Station" (1926-1931), " Works of Dnieper Biological Station" (1934-1940).

Developing comprehensive limnological and ichthyological researches Institute on the eve of World War II expanded the study of hydrobiological and hydrochemical regime of the Middle Dnieper in the upcoming controling its flow.

During the World War II the Institute studied ponds of Bashkortostan, conducted hydrobiological, health and biological and ichthyological research of Byeloya river and was providing substantial assistance to public health, water and fisheries of Bashkortostan.

In 1944, after returning to Kyiv, Institute staff involved in solving complex hydrobiological and ichthyological problems, mainly with the development of fisheries. It was started-up studies in comlex of the lower Danube and the Danube estuary. The results of these works played an important role in the preparation of international agreements on the regulation of fisheries on the Danube. Great theoretical and applied significance of the work (1947-1952 years) under the leadership of Ukrainian hydrobiologist M. Markowski, dedicated to the deep bottom tsenolohichnomu analysis of population the lower Danube, Dnieper and Dniester (Марковский Ю.М. Фауна беспозвоночных низовьев рек Украины, условия ее существования и пути исследования. Ч.1. Водоемы дельты Днестра и Днестровский лиман. – Киев: Изд-во АН УССР, 1953. – 196 с.; Ч.2. Днепровско-Бугский лиман. – Киев: Изд-во АН УССР, 1954. – 208 с.).

Since fifty years, the main priority for the Institute was complex study of the Dnieper, is associated with the development of construction projects Dnieper cascade of hydropower plants and reservoirs. There have been a great series of studies to examine the hydrobiological processes in terms of control flow of the Dnieper and the patterns of biological treatment reservoirs. The peculiarities of the impact of building HPP on fish stocks and their reproduction in the new environment, developed and implemented measures to fisheries exploitation of reservoirs and enrichment of forage fish (В.І.Владимиров, В.А. Мовчан) (Владимиров В.И., Сухойван П.Г., Бугай К.С. Размножение рыб в условиях зарегулированного стока реки (на примере Днепра). – Киев: Узд-во АН УССР, 1963. – 395 с.; Мовчан В.А. Жизнь рыб и их разведение. – М.: Колос, 1966. – 351 с.). Corresponding Member of USSR Academy of Sciences VA Movchan was awarded the USSR State Prize for the development of the intensification of pond farms (1949).

Have continued work on the introduction pontocaspian complex in newly Dnipro reservoirs to form high-forage fishery and increase biodiversity of these reservoirs. The works were accompanied by a comprehensive study of ecosystems newly created water bodies (Каховське водоймище / Пiд ред. Я.Я.Цееба. – К.: Наук. думка, 1964. – 304 с.; Киевское водохранилище. Гидрохимия, гидробиология, продуктивность / Под ред. Я.Я.Цееба, Ю.Г. Майстренко. – К.: Наук. думка, 1972. – 460 с.).

It was first formulated in terms of technical and biological engineering, reconstruction and usage hydroelectric reservoirs. At this time the subject of the institute was largely oriented to determine patterns of water quality and bio-productivity newly created ponds on the background of lack of international experience in studying the dynamics of the ecosystems of this type.Research work of the Institute of the Dnieper subjects are summarized in a series of publications (Гидрология и гидрохимия Днепра и его водохранилищ / Денисова А.И., Тимченко В.М., Нахшина Е.П. и др. – Киев: Наук. думка, 1989. – 216 с.; Днепровско-Бугская эстуарная екосистема / Жукинский В.Н., Журавлева Л.А., Іванов А.И. и др. – Киев: Наук. думка, 1989. – 240 с.; Беспозвоночные и рыбы Днепра и его водохранилищ / Зимбалевская Л.Н., Сухойван П.Г., Черногоренко М.И. – Киев: Наук. думка, 1989. – 248 с. та ін.).

In the 60's developed the theory of formation of the hydrochemical regime of reservoirs lowland rivers, developed the basis of scientific forecasting of hydrochemical regime of reservoirs. Results of these studies used in the practice of water management in the design and construction of canals and reservoirs, solving technical problems and drinking water supply and irrigation. For a series of works on water hydrochemistry of Ukraine the staff members of the Institute was awarded the USSR State Prize (OM Almazov, AI Denisov, Maistrenko Y., Kosenko AD, Nahshyna EP, Feldman MV .) (1972). Further hydrochemical studies were aimed at establishing the distribution patterns of nutrients and organic substances and heavy metal compounds including abiotic components of reservoirs, river mouths and estuaries areas. The result was developed methodological framework for research component of dissolved organic substances and coexisting forms of metals in waters of various types (Набиванец Б.И., Линник П.Н., Калабина Л.В. Кинетические методы анализа природных вод.– Киев: Наук. думка, 1981. – 140 с.; Линник П.Н., Набиванец Б.И. Формы миграции металлов в пресных поверхностных водах.– Л.: Гидрометеоиздат, 1986.–270 с.).

Under the direction of AV Topachevsky launched a study of biological contamination of water bodies and search for means of managing these processes. Determined the causes and patterns of mass development of blue-green algae in ponds and other Dnieper cascade reservoirs, developed the scientific foundations of measures to reduce the negative consequences of "flowering" of water, improve its quality and sanitary-biological reservoirs of hydroelectric power stations. These achievements have been published in several monographic works («Цветение» воды / Отв. ред. А.В.Топачевский. – Киев: Наук. думка, 1968. – Вып. 1. – 388 с.; Вып. 2. Вопросы физиологии, биохимии, токсикологии и использование синезеленых водорослей. К.: Наук. думка, 1969, 268 с; Физиологические основы размножения синезеленых водорослей в водохранилищах / Сиренко Л.А. – К.: Наук. думка, 1972 – 204 с.; Формирование и контроль качества поверхностных вод. Вып. 1. Водная токсикология. – Киев: Наук. думка, 1975–1976. – 154 с.; вып. 2. Проблемы регулирования «цветения» воды и использование водорослей в народном хозяйстве. 1976. – 154 с.; Вып. 3. Охрана вод от воздействия удобрений и ядохимикатов. 1976. – 140 с. та ін). For scientific research achievements in physiology of freshwater algae LY Sirenko was awarded the Prize of MG Holodny.

Ecotoxicological research at the Institute began in the first half of the 60s due to the finding of chemical methods of combating "flowering" of water. Under the direction of LP Brahinsky were made full scale and pilot studies, which allowed to make generalizations about the dangers of applying alhitsydiv and other chemical agents and allowed to formulate methodological and theoretical principles of ecological and toxicological studies (Л.П. Брагинский. Пестициды и жизнь водоемов (1972), Л.П. Брагинский, Ф.Я. Комаровский, А.И. Мережко. „Персистентные пестициды в экологии пресных вод" (1979)). It was found especially toxins and metabolites of blue-green algae in aquatic organisms, in particular - breach of metabolism in fish (А.Я. Маляревская, Т.И. Биргер, О.М. Арсан, В.Д. Соломатина "Влияние сине-зеленых водорослей на обмен веществ у рыб" (1973). Results of studies of ecological and toxicological situation reservoirs of Ukraine summarized in the collective monograph "Comprehensive Assessment of the ecological state of the Dnipro Basin" (2000).

In the 60's Institute initiated the study of patterns of health and biological regime of cooling ponds of thermal and atomic power stations and channels transfer of water runoff. Findings cooling pond Ukraine were summarized in the monograph „Гидробиология водоемов-охладителей Украины. – Київ: Наук. думка, 1991", that still have outstanding achievements in the field of Hydrobiology.
Large-scale hydraulic construction on the Dnieper was accompanied by the creation of territorial transfer channels of flow of the Dnieper in the arid southern regions of Ukraine. The staff of the Institute under the guidance of prof. AP Oksiyuk created conceptual approaches to determine patterns of water quality in the channels, which were developed based on engineering, hydrological and biological recommendations to ensure the quality of water in the channels and prevent biological interference in the process of transporting water (Управление качеством воды в каналах / Оксиюк О.П., Стольберг Ф.В. – Киев: Наук. думка, 1986. – 176 с.). These recommendations have been implemented in practice, particularly in the construction and operation of the channel "Dnipro-Donbass". These works laid the foundation for a new direction in hydroecological science, namely "Managment of aquatic ecosystems", which successfully developed and today ((Екологічні вимоги до правил експлуатації дніпровських водосховищ /Тімченко В.М., Оксіюк О.П., и др. – Київ:ЗАТ "ВІПОЛ", 2002. – 36 с.; Экологические попуски Киевской ГЭС / Оксиюк О.П., Тимченко В.М. и др. – К.:ЛОГОС, 2003. – 69 с.; Тимченко В.М. Экологическая гидрология водоемов Украины. Інститут гідробіології НАН України. Київ: Наук. думка, 2006. – 283 с.).

For "Algae of the channels of world" and " Invertebrates of the channels of USSR" by OP Oksiyuk and OH Kaftannikova were awarded the Prize of MG Holodny.

In the 80's greatly expanded research institute at Northwestern waters of Black Sea region, including the Ukrainian section of the Danube. The most important task of the institute was to assess the ecological condition and forecast changes in connection with the design canal "Danube-Dnepr". For the first time in the world developed conceptual approaches to environmental assessment of global projects, established methodical and its computer software program, which gave an opportunity to prove the groundlessness of the ecological construction. These works were published in several monographs (Экологические проблемы межбассейновых перебросок стока: (на примере водохозяйственного комплекса Дунай-Днепр) / В.Д.Романенко, О.П.Оксиюк, В.Н. Жукинский и др. – Киев: Наук. думка, 1984. – 256 с; Экологическая оценка воздействия гидротехнического строительства на водные объекты / В.Д.Романенко, О.П.Оксиюк, В.Н. Жукинский, Ф.В.Стольберг и др. – Киев: Наук. думка, 1990. – 256 с. та інші). The cycle of works "Environmental impact assessment dredging projects on water bodies" was awarded the State Prize of Ukraine in Science and Technology (1995) (VD Romanenko, O. Oksiyuk, VM Zhukynskyy, VI Lavrik, FV Stolberg).

Greatly developed in the institute acquired hidrobotanic studies. Since research Zerov KK, Korelyakova IL, Merezhko OI the higher aquatic vegetation was regarded as one of the main components of hidrobiocenoses shallow water, which determines their structural and functional features (Зеров К.К. Формирование растительности и зарастание водохранилищ днепровского каскада.– К.: Наук. думка, 1976.– 140 с.; Корелякова И.Л. Растительность Кременчугского водохранилища.– К.: Наук. думка, 1977.- 195 с.).

In 80 - 90 years under the direction Dr. OI Merezhko conducted comprehensive studies of small rivers of Ukraine, which was based on the principle of organic unity of the river and catchment area, the functional role of biological processes and the relationship of these components in the evolution of river systems. As part of solving "the problems of small rivers" were developed by scientific principles of rational nature in their pools, water content and maintenance of self-purification processes in river systems. From 1990 to 2005 was conducted environmental certification of more than 2,000 small rivers of Ukraine, which became the basis for their further rehabilitation (Мережко О.І., Хімко Р.В. Оздоровлення малих річок: екологічні основи. –К.: Інтер-екоцентр, 1998. – 56 с.; Хімко Р. В., Мережко О. І., Бабко Р. В. Малі річки – дослідження, охорона, відновлення. – К: ІНЕКО, 2003. – 380 с.).

Developed guidelines for pre-order decision-making and design of hydraulic rehabilitation of damaged irrigation and construction of river ecosystems ("Restorative hydroecology of affected river systems" (1999)).

Long floral and faunal studies in the basin of the Dnieper in Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine have allowed to develop strategy for the conservation of biological and landscape diversity in its pool (Романенко В.Д., Афанасьев С.А., Гродзинский М.Д. и др. Стратегия сохранения биологического и ландшафтного разнообразия бассейна Днепра – К.: Ай Би, 2004. – 104 с.).

As a result of complex ichthyological research studied the state of fisheries fund Dnipro basin and compiled a list of common fish in the Dnieper basin of Ukraine, Belarus and the Russian Federation, which comprises 90 species. Among them introdutsentov number, species-interventionists, who actively and significantly expanded its habitat, invasive species in natural waters universe accidentally during fishers measures or unauthorized settlement and non-fish farming facilities (Влияние рыбного хозяйства на биологическое разнообразие в бассейне реки Днепр/ Романенко В.Д., Афанасьев С.А. и др. – Киев, 2003. – 190 с.).

Based on studies of complex ecosystems Dnipro reservoirs, especially its littoral, the theory of formation and development of lowland reservoirs ecosystems as a succession process that was summarized in monographic works (Мелководья Кременчугского водохранилища / Л.Н. Зимбалевская, Н.В. Пикуш, А.В.Кудина и др. – Киев: Наук. думка, 1979. – 282 с.; Структура и сукцесии литоральных биоценозов днепровских водохранилищ / Л.Н. Зимбалевская и др. – Киев: Наук. думка, 1987. – 204 с.). Developed in the theory of the provisions given the tools to improve the environmental situation in the Dnieper reservoirs, inhibition of "aging" of these ecosystems due to changes in hydrological regime, hydro-ameliorative measures in shallow water, and coastal protection and damb-producting that realized in practice water management organizations in Ukraine.

A theoretical generalizations regarding buffer capacity, mechanisms of formation and stability of aquatic ecosystems cenoses relatively external anthropogenic factors, their biodiversity and functional activity. Found that particularly sensitive to pollution are water ecotones. Using the accumulation properties of ecotones in the process of accumulation of different types of pollutants and toxicants, and conducting monitoring of these contact zones may develop conservation measures that will spread not only ecotonic zone, but on a much larger area adjacent landscapes (Биоразнообразие и качество среды антропогенно измененных гидроэкосистем Украины / Харченко Т.А., Протасов А.А., Ляшенко А.В. и др. – Киев: Видавництво ВІПОЛ, 2005 –314 с.).

Generalization of matireals of freshwater peryfiton, reviewed its structural and functional features of different types of water bodies - streams, lakes, reservoirs, technical waters, including water coolers, thermal and nuclear power plants. Principles of classification groups and peryfitonu system cenoecomorf (Протасов А.А. Пресноводный перифитон. – Киев: Наук. думка, 1994. – 308 с.).

Established back in the Dnieper biological station in the 20's of last century academician AP Markevich parasitological research reservoirs of Ukraine subsequently covered major groups of aquatic organisms (fish, molluscs, crustaceans). The main focus of research was the systematic study of parasitological situation in different water bodies of Ukraine and the development of theoretical and applied bases hydroparasitology. OP Markevitch for his significant contribution to the creation of the Ukrainian scientific zoological nomenclature was awarded the USSR State Prize in Science and Technology (1988). Modern hydroparasitological research aimed at developing principles and methodology of assessment of freshwater ecosystems and the quality of the aquatic environment based on parasitological indicators. For a series of publications "An integrated approach to the assessment of anthropogenically altered water using physiological, biochemical, cytogenetic and parasitological indicators" team of young scientists of the Institute (Yuryshynets VI, Mardarevych MG, Stoyka YO) was awarded prize President of Ukraine for young scientists (2004).

The role of freshwater algae ekzametabolitiv in the formation of water quality (Сакевич А.И. Экзаметаболиты пресноводных водорослей. – Киев: Наук. думка, 1985. – 199 с.).
Shown that the higher aquatic plants produce biologically active substances that can significantly affect the functional activity of algae and cyanobacteria. Among them the highest activity observed polyphenols, terpenes, alkaloids. Cyanobacteria celebrating the most sensitive to the action of polyphenols, which leads to a significant reduction in their number in algaes groupes.

The main focus of ecological physiology of aquatic animals is the study of mechanisms of adaptation of aquatic animals (invertebrates fish) with salt, ionic and temperature factors of the aquatic environment. The role of individual ions and their complexes in the metabolic reactions associated with bioenergetic and biosynthetic processes in freshwater fish as representatives poykilotermnyh organisms. Neirohormonal studied mechanisms of adaptation of fish to temperature factors of the aquatic environment, reasonable control of the metabolism of the body by directional changes in water temperature, photoperiod, and other physical and chemical factors.

Established features of the percolation physiological and biochemical processes in carp fish in their cultivation in the heated waters of power projects for which developed ways to optimize their bioproductivity through ionic activation carboxylation reaction, achieved the introduction of micro-and macroelements in feed (Евтушенко Н.Ю. Проблемы минерального питания рыб и пути их решения в условиях тепловодного выращивания, 1992).

Evidence-based control reproductive processes of fish allowed to develop a method for polycyclic reproduction of fish regardless of the season and weather conditions (Биотехнология культивирования гидробионтов / Романенко В.Д., Крот Ю.Г., Сиренко Л.А., Соломатина В.Д.: Институт гидробиологии НАН Украины. – Киев, 1999. – 264 с.).

Works related to the discovery of the mechanisms of adaptation of aquatic animals to environmental changes in environmental conditions marked Prize of NAS of Ukraine. VJ Yur'ev (VD Romanenko, 1984).

The problem of adaptation of aquatic animals is one of the most important in understanding the patterns of their distribution in water bodies of different types. Knowledge of the mechanisms of adaptation of aquatic organisms to physical and chemical factors of water environment is a fundamental basis for the legal limit discharge of pollutants into water bodies. Hence, after Ukraine declared independence this area was a priority in the activities of the institute.

Major achievements in this direction are summarized in monographic works: „Метаболизм углекислоты у рыб (эколого-физиологические аспекты)". – Киев: Наук. думка, 1980. – 180 с; „Кальций и фосфор в жизнедеятельности гидробионтов". – Киев: Наук. думка, 1982. – 152 с.; „Механизмы температурной акклимации рыб". – Киев: Наук. думка, 1991. – 192 с. та ін. These works formed the basis for development of biotech cultivation of aquatic organisms in controlled water treatment systems. The cycle works "Ecological bases of biotechnology reproduction of fish and invertebrates in aquaculture" awarded in 2002 Prize of NAS of Ukraine. of M. Schmalhausen (VD Romanenko, G. Krot, VD Solomatina).

Aquatic organisms of different taxonomic levels are becoming increasingly important as an efficient source of biologically active substances (including medical), food and feed products, growth stimulants, drugs pest control and more. They are used in determining the quality of natural and waste water purification and recovery of biological faculty, correcting technological cycles enterprises.

Given this, perhaps believing that the further implementation hidrobiotehnolohiy developed at the institute, will significantly expand the scope of aquatic organisms in different areas of human activity.

In the deployment of both fundamental and applied research in this area contributes to modern experimental facilities of the Institute that allows year-round cultivation of aquatic organisms to different trophic levels and practical implementation of the development on the Bila Tserkva Hydrobiological station. It the first time in Ukraine was introduced herbivorous fish fauna complexes (Вовк П.С. Биология дальневосточных растительноядных рыб и их хозяйственное использование в водоймах Украины. – К.: Наук. думка, 1976. – 248 с.). Vovk PS was awarded the Prize. VJ Yuriev for a series of works on biology and fisheries exploitation of the Far Eastern herbivorous fishes in the Ukraine.

Radiological Research Institute associated with the study of migration, transformation and biological effects of radionuclides in continental water ecosystems. Under the direction of MI Jones in the post-Chernobyl period spent long Radiological study of processes of distribution, migration and transformation of radionuclides 3H, 90Sr, 134Cs, 238Pu, 239+240Pu, 241Am etc. ecosystems in the Chernobyl exclusion zone of reservoirs, the Dnieper and its tributaries and the cooling pond of NPP. Established dose and clarified characteristics of irregularities in the aquatic life if they stay in ecosystems with different levels of radioactive and chemical contamination (Радиоактивное и химическое загрязнение Днепра и его водохранилищ после аварии на Чернобыльской АЭС. – Киев: Наук. думка, 1992. – 194 с.; Гидроэкологические последствия аварии на Чернобыльской АЭС. – Киев: Наук. думка, 1992. – 268 с.; Радіонукліди у водних екосистемах України. – Київ: Чорнобильінтерінформ, 2001. – 318 с.

Institute of Hydrobiology cooperates with universities: National University of Taras Shevchenko, National University of Agriculture, University of "Kyiv-Mohyla Academy", National University of Aviation and others. In the framework of agreements on creative collaboration, students of higher educational institutions are different kinds of educational practices at the Institute for the relevant specialties. Institute staff are teaching in schools, prepare new courses, publish books and manuals.

In 2004, the textbook "Fundamentals of hydroecology", 2001 - Author: Romanenko VD - was awarded the State Prize of Ukraine in science and technology. In 2004 came the Russian-language edition of this textbook.

 


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